The Global Edition of the Dual Citizenship Report Launched

An Overview of Dual Citizenship Laws in Over 100 Jurisdictions

Chetcuti Cauchi | Published on 25 Apr 2019

The Global Edition of Dual Citizenship Report Launched-img

The Dual Citizenship Report Series


 Following the success of the first two editions of the Dual Citizenship Report, the third Dual Citizenship Report is being issued by Chetcuti Cauchi Advocates. Whilst the first two editions analysed specific regions, the first global edition assesses the dual citizenship laws of over 100 countries globally. 


With regards to the subject of dual citizenship, the Dual Citizenship Report, as a work of legal expertise, has gained importance as a point of reference for various inquiries. The series of the dual citizenship report delves into whether a particular jurisdiction, permits, limits, or else forbids its citizens from enjoying dual and multiple citizenship. Every country chapter is grounded on the feedback from law firms which gave a detailed examination with regards to their legislation regulating citizenship in their country. 


The latest global edition of the dual citizenship report serves as an important addition because it expands the research to include dual citizenship legislation in more than 100 jurisdictions worldwide. Moreover, the global edition also comprises various country chapters from the other editions, which were revised and amended in order to implement the recent amendments to the law. 


The reader can easily link and contrast dual citizenship, by reason of the fact, that the report includes jurisdictions from all over the world. The research for the global edition was conducted between January and March 2019.  

 


Dual Citizenship Globally 


Even though all jurisdictions are distinctively influenced by their background, the Global Edition allows for a few generalisations. It can be held that nowadays, dual citizenship and its rights are recognised extensively by most countries. Statistically, as shown from the review, 60% of the countries allow dual citizenship, whilst only 20% of the countries entirely prohibit dual citizenship. The practice that naturalisation results in a withdrawal or loss of citizenship, has been widely discarded by many. Moreover, there is only a small percentage of states which demand that a choice needs to be made by those born with dual citizenship, i.e. between their two citizenships, upon attaining the age of majority. 


European countries, as well as Latin America, North America, the Pacific and the Caribbean, constitute the majority of countries which allow dual citizenship. On the other hand, dual citizenship legislation in the Commonwealth of the Independent States and Africa are more diverse, however, Southeast Asia is considered as the most restrictive jurisdiction with regards to this matter. 


Countries which allow dual citizenship without any restrictions include Malta, Canada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, New Zealand, Saint Lucia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Cyprus. There are certain countries which do not explicitly refer to their dual citizenship laws, and as a result, they abstain from imposing any repercussions, resulting from the obtainment of another nationality. 


As shown from the Global report there are certain jurisdictions which although they permit dual citizenship, they might still impose specific limitations such as matters relating to public office. For example, Russia poses a restriction on those members elected for the Federation Council or else those which contribute in the editorial office of a broadcasting entity or a mass media. Various countries such as South Africa and Russia, only permit dual citizenship if the individual informs the authorities. 


On the other side of the coin, there are other jurisdictions which entirely prohibit dual citizenship and also hold that the attainment of another citizenship would result in the loss of their own citizenship. Some of such countries are Nepal, India, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Monaco and China. With regards to countries like Estonia, Japan and Indonesia, there is an exception for adult dual citizens or children under a certain age. However, once they attain the age of majority, such individuals have to decide on which citizenship to keep and which to renounce. 


There are other jurisdictions which prohibit dual citizenship, but which make expectations in certain cases or which are subject to certain conditions, compromising international treaties with certain countries, or in cases of marriage or birth. With regards to EU countries such as Latvia, Bulgaria and Germany, dual citizenship is permitted in relation to EU member states, amongst other criteria. There are countries which have a set of dual nationality agreements in place. Some of such countries are Pakistan, Spain, Nicaragua and the Honduras. Countries such as Norway, Austria, South Korea and Lithuania make allowances for dual citizenship for dual citizens either by marriage or birth, or both. 
 



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Dr Jean-Philippe Chetcuti

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